Disease Focus of the Month-Small Cell Lung Cancer(SCLC)

Small Cell Lung Cancer (SLSC): Small Cell Lung Cancer is also termed as oat cell cancer as in this type of cancer, cells are small, round and they resemble oats. Lung cancer in general starts in the cells lining the bronchi and in other parts of the lung such as alveoli. Small cell lung cancer is a disease in which the malignant cells form in the tissues of the lung. It often starts in the bronchi near the centre of the chest and it spreads very rapidly before symptoms could be identified. The cancer cells can multiply quickly, form tumors and can spread to lymph nodes and other organs such as liver, adrenal glands etc.

Prevalence Rate: 200 per 100,000 populations

Cause: There are many causes for SCLC but 9 out of 10 cases are due to smoking.

Tobacco Smoking :Smoking is considered one of the leading risk factors for lung cancer. It is very rare for a person who has not smoked tobacco and he develops SCLC. The longer a person has been smoking, the higher the risk. If a person stops smoking before the lung cancer starts, the lung tissue repairs itself. Even second-hand smokers (who don’t smoke but breathe the smoke of others) are at higher risk of developing SCLC.

Radon :It is a radioactive gas that emanates from the breakdown of uranium in soil and rocks Radon can’t be seen, tasted or smelled and hence creates high possibility for lung cancer.

Asbestos :People who are exposed to asbestos have also very high probability of developing lung cancer.

Other factors :The other factors include exposure to chemicals, diesel exhaust or radioactive ores, family history, certain vitamins and air pollution.

Treatments: There are numerous treatments for different kinds of symptoms in MS.

Disease modifying drugs :Five types of standard treatments are used:

Surgery :Generally, SCLC is found in both lungs but if the cancer is found in just one lung, surgery may be used.

Chemotherapy :It uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells. This could be either by killing it or stopping them to multiply.

Radiation therapy :This uses high energy x-rays to kill the cancer cells or stop from growing.

Laser therapy :It uses the laser beam to stop or kill the cancer cells.

Endoscopic stent placement :This can be used to open an airway blocked by an abnormal tissue.

Market size: As per the report by Business insights, SCLC accounts for 20% of the total lung cancer cases. Based on the global diagnostic rates and the average annual cost of treatment per patient, the SCLC market is estimated to be around $6 billion. Of the top seven markets US accounts for almost 50% followed by Japan (21%) and the EU5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) accounts for 29% of the market.