Disease Focus of the Month – Diabetes

Diabetes : Diabetes mellitus or simply Diabetes is a chronic disease which develops as a result of defects in the body to produce/use Insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is produced by pancreas to control blood sugar. It converts sugar, starch and other food into energy. There are three different types of Diabetes:

Type 1: Also called juvenile Diabetes, this is diagnosed usually in children or young adults. In this type, the body does not produce insulin.

Type 2: In this type of Diabetes, the body either does not produce enough insulin or the fat, liver and muscle liver cells do not respond normally to it.

Gestational Diabetes: A high blood sugar diabetes that starts or is diagnosed during pregnancy usually at around 28 weeks or later. This does not imply that the woman had diabetes before getting pregnant or she would continue to have, but it is important to seek doctor’s advice.

Prevalence Rate: Based on the report, the world prevalence of diabetes among adults aged (20-79) was supposed to be around 285 Million and is expected to increase to 439 million by 2030. Between 2010 and 2030, the number of patients in developing countries is expected to increase by 69% in comparison to 20% increase in developed economies. The following graph provides an estimate of the diabetic patients in different countries by 2030.

 

pie-chart

 

 

Cause: Following are the causes based on types of diabetes:

Type 1:It is difficult to ascertain a specific reason or the cause. However, following could be the reasons:
Infection with a specific virus or bacteria, Food borne chemical toxins, Obesity

Type 2:For adults, following could be the probable reasons for diabetes:
Heredity, Increasing age, Obesity, Sedentary lifestyle

Treatments: Diabetes can be controlled but cannot be eliminated. For all the types of diabetes, exercise, controlled diabetic diet and insulin are normal treatments. The objective is to keep a good balance of blood sugar, neither high nor low. One of the practical ways to control diabetes is to adhere to diabetic diet and exercise. When these measures fail, oral medications are used. If that also fails, then insulin is used.

Market size: The Global market of Diabetes is expected to reach $51.2 billion by 2015.It was about $35.5 billion in 2009.

References:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002194/

http://www.diabetes.org

http://www.diabetesresearchclinicalpractice.com/article/S0168-8227(09)00432X/abstract

http://www.nature.com/nrd/journal/v4/n5/fig_tab/nrd1723_ft.html

http://diabetesinformationhub.com/WhatCausesDiabetes.php